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Multicultural Management/Business Ethics

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NB: Some of the examples and research I use for this course comes from the work of Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner experts in the field of cultural management and have authored many books on understanding diversity in global business, including “Riding the Waves of Culture.” And, a reference book I purchased on a trip to Beijing, China in 2005 “A short course in International Business Culture” published by Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. In addition, I have received permission to post material from the pocket book “Passport USA: Your pocket guide to American Business, Customs & Etiquette” published by World Trade Press.

Question 1: Please focus on the two countries below to answer these questions:
· Pakistan
· USA

Using the Hofstede Model outlined in your text( International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures Author: Helen Deresky Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall
Edition: 5th Edition/2006) and on the website: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/ discuss the four questions below in relation to your above twp chosen countries.

1.In which countries should managers find a participative approach to management most effective? In which countries would such an approach be less effective and why?

2.In which countries would you expect to find a greater emphasis on training and developing the workforce/why?

3.In which countries would you expect supervisors to provide specific instructions to their employees/why?

4.In which countries would teamwork be an effective management practice/why? Which countries do you think would have the greatest difficulty implementing a team approach/why? Provide examples when possible.

Question 2.

Discuss the types of operational conflicts that could occur in an international context because of the differences in attitudes toward time, change, material factors and individualism. Give examples relative to any specific countries?such as:
· France
· Great Britain
· Guatemala
· Israel
· Jamaica
· Japan
· Mexico
· Pakistan
· Sweden
· USA

Audit: Going Concern Issues of responsibility and reporting

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A staff auditor has just returned from a continuing professional education workshop on current auditing standards. One of her managers has asked her to prepare a training session for the rest of the staff. In particular, he wants her to discuss the standard related to the client’s ability to continue as a going concern.

Required
a. Describe the auditor’s responsibility for assessing each client’s ability to continue as a going concern.

b. Describe the effect on the financial statements and on the auditor’s report for each of the following independent situations.
1. The auditor has substantial doubt as to whether the client is a going concern.
2. The auditor believes the footnote describing the going concern problem is inadequate. In the prior year statements, a going concern problem had been disclosed and was referred to in the auditor’s prior year report, but the uncertainty has been eliminated this year. Comparative statements will be issued.
3. The auditor concludes that the client is likely to continue in existence for at least one more year. The same conclusion had been reached in prior years.
4. The client was forced into bankruptcy by creditors after year-end but before the audit was completed.

Business Ethics in Society

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1. How does the society benefit from an economy built on free trade where both the labor and the buyer only seek personal gain?

2. Why is considering the law not enough for managers to make a decision? What other factors need to be considered? Give an example of a decision that would incorporate all of these factors.

3. Utilitarian morality places no value on observing rules. What does this mean? Give an example how utilitarian morality may be used in the business world of today.

4. Interpret the implications of universalizability for moral reasoning. Give an example of universalizability in an occupation that you have worked.

Ethical Issues – Press Release on Ethics Interest

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Rejuvenation, Inc. is a company that manufactures and sells parts and fixtures for older homes. Much of its success stems from its reputation as a company with high moral values and a strong commitment to people and the planet. It is an organization with a strong culture in support of the natural environment and social responsibility.

The company has recently received some media attention that was not entirely positive. You have been hired to compose a response in the form of a press release. In your response, your goal is to explain the culture at Rejuvenation, Inc. Using examples, describe how Rejuvenation, Inc. lives its culture.

This needs to be a one to two page press release but I don’t know how to start it or what I need to talk about in a press release. Some guidance is appreciated.

Ethics and a System of Inquiry

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System of inquiry in evaluating decision-making, problem solving and behavior in a business setting. Basic framework as well as a discussion on why, when, and whom it is used.

I need to write a paper on system of inquiry to be used in evaluation decision-making, problem solving, and behavior in a business setting, This model should include a basic framework as well as a discussion on why, how, when, and by whom it is used. Consider how you would implement the code, possible reactions to the code from employees, and the effect the code would have on the organization. Write a 2,100-word paper discussing your system of inquiry in detail. I just talked to a student and our paper now only has to be at least 4 pages long. I work at garden merchandising as a summer hire. I guess what I need to do is base my paper on their code of ethics. The code of ethics will be used as the basis for the System of Inquiry assignment. I could not find a code of ethics for the garden merchandising so I will use World Vision.

WORLD VISION

Who we serve
World Vision helps transform the lives of the world’s poorest children and families in nearly 100 countries, including the United States. Our non-profit work extends assistance to all people, regardless of their religious beliefs, gender, race, or ethnic background.

Why we serve
World Vision is a Christian relief and development organization dedicated to helping children and their communities worldwide reach their full potential by tackling the causes of poverty.

How we serve
Relationships are the starting point and the end goal of World Vision’s work. Through relationships with community leaders, World Vision’s staff help communities set goals that families can achieve by working together. By our demonstration of God’s love through our work, we hope that people will experience life in all its fullness.

Community Development

Helping people to discover and use their own vision, skills, and resources to move from abject poverty to abundant living.

Targeting critical needs: clean water, reliable food supplies, access to basic health care, access to education, and income-generating microeconomic development.
Partnering with churches, governments, local organizations, and international agencies.

Disaster Relief

Responding to sudden natural disasters and slow-building humanitarian emergencies around the world.

Saving lives and reducing suffering by tracking crises, pre-positioning emergency supplies for immediate response, and remaining after the crisis to rebuild and restore communities.

Global Issues

Engaging a worldwide AIDS Hope Initiative of prevention and care, especially for widows, orphans, and vulnerable children, that brings a compassionate Christian response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

What is your World Vision?

Points of contact to make a difference:

>> Sponsor a Child or a Family

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I am asking for suggestions and examples of systems of inquiries and how they work together with the code of ethics in business settings. A suggested outline and information would also be appreciated. I am not asking an OTA to write the essay for me. Thank you!

Business Ethics

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1. Discuss autonomy as a basis for argument against employment at will. Do you favor at will employment? Present at least 3 reasons to back up your belief.

2. In spite of the existence of the present legal protection, right of contract and considerations of public policy, is there a need for a new law against unjust dismissal? Why? Give three examples of unjust dismissal that you may be aware of.

3. List and discuss the ethical justification of each of the three theories that are used to determine when a product is defective and what is owed to the victims of accidents caused by defective products. Give an example of the actual usage of each of these theories when a product that was defective caused an accident.

4. Are fetal-protection policies discriminatory? Why? Present at least two examples to back up your statement.

5. What is churning? Why is it ethically objectionable? Give an example of churning and what action you feel should be taken.

6. What is Insider Trading? Why is it a fraud? Discuss the Martha Stewart case. What did she do that was so bad that she was put in prison? Do you agree with the verdict? Why?

7. Discuss the drawbacks and benefits of hostile takeovers. Give an example of a hostile takeover that you believe turned out to be beneficial for employees and one that hurt most employees of the company that was taken over.

People refuse to accept responsibility for their actions

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We’ve talked about people’s behavior, particularly behavior that is self-destructive in some professional or personal way, and social scientists and psychologists offer myriad explanations (excuses?) for this ranging from environmental causes ( something else is responsible for my bad behavior) or genetic causes (someone else, my parents, are responsible) or physical causes (I have an illness). The common thread here is, it’s not my fault. I’m not responsible.

Covey hits on the truth of where responsibility lies when he talks about a stick where one end is the behavior and the other end is the consequence of that behavior. And, when you choose the behavior, you also choose the consequence that is attached to it. The two cannot be separated.

Society has allowed people, at least in their minds, to separate the two.

What do you think about this idea? If you find some merit to it, what can we do collectively and individually to reconnect, in people’s minds, behavior and its consequence?