14. Evolutionary theories often emphasize that humans have adapted to their physical
environment. One such theory hypothesizes that people should spontaneously
follow a 24-hour cycle of sleeping and waking—even if they are not exposed to
the usual pattern of sunlight. To test this notion, eight paid volunteers were
placed (individually) in a room in which there was no light from the outside and
no clocks or other indications of time. They could turn the lights on and off as
they wished. After a month in the room, each individual tended to develop a
steady cycle. Their cycles at the end of the study were as follows: 25, 27, 25, 23,
24, 25, 26, and 25.
Using the .05 level of significance, what should we conclude about the
theory that 24 hours is the natural cycle? (That is, does the average cycle length
under these conditions differ significantly from 24 hours?) (a) Use the steps of
hypothesis testing. (b) Sketch the distributions involved. (c) Explain your answer
to someone who has never taken a course in statistics.
18. Twenty students randomly assigned to an experimental group receive an
instructional program; 30 in a control group do not. After 6 months, both groups
are tested on their knowledge. The experimental group has a mean of 38 on the
test (with an estimated population standard deviation of 3); the control group
has a mean of 35 (with an estimated population standard deviation of 5). Using
the .05 level, what should the experimenter conclude? (a) Use the steps of
hypothesis testing, (b) sketch the distributions involved, and (c) explain your
answer to someone who is familiar with the t test for a single sample but not
with the t test for independent means.
17. Do students at various universities differ in how sociable they are? Twenty-five
students were randomly selected from each of three universities in a region and
were asked to report on the amount of time they spent socializing each day with
other students. The result for University X was a mean of 5 hours and an estimated
population variance of 2 hours; for University Y, M = 4, S2 = 1.5 and for University
Z, M = 6, S2 = 2.5 What should you conclude? Use the .05 level.
(a) Use the steps of hypothesis testing, (b) figure the effect size for the study;
and (c) explain your answers to parts (a) and (b) to someone who has never had
a course in statistics.
11. Make up a scatter diagram with 10 dots for each of the following situations:
(a) perfect positive linear correlation, (b) large but not perfect positive linear
correlation, (c) small positive linear correlation, (d) large but not perfect negative
linear correlation, (e) no correlation, (f) clear curvilinear correlation.
For problems 12 to 14, do the following: (a) Make a scatter diagram of the
scores; (b) describe in words the general pattern of correlation, if any; (c) figure
the correlation coefficient; (d) figure whether the correlation is statistically significant
(use the .05 significance level, two-tailed); (e) explain the logic of what
you have done, writing as if you are speaking to someone who has never heard
of correlation (but who does understand the mean, deviation scores, and hypothesis
testing); and (f) give three logically possible directions of causality, indicating
for each direction whether it is a reasonable explanation for the correlation
in light of the variables involved (and why).
Stat 315 Week 5
12. Four research participants take a test of manual dexterity (high scores mean better dexterity)
and an anxiety test (high scores mean more anxiety). The scores are as follows.